Screening for ADHD in adults with cystic fibrosis: Prevalence, health-related quality of life, and adherence.

Abstract

BACKGROUND International guidelines recommend depression and anxiety screening in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), but Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) remains understudied. METHODS Adults with CF (n=53) were screened using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-v1.1 Symptom Checklist (ASRS-v1.1), Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised (CFQ-R), and a self-report measure of treatment adherence. RESULTS Elevated ADHD symptoms on the ASRS-v1.1 screener were reported by 15% of participants. Self-reported adherence, Body Mass Index in kg/m2 (BMI), and Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 Second, Percent Predicted (FEV1%pred) did not differ between participants with vs. without elevated ADHD scores. Three CFQ-R scales, Physical Functioning, Role Functioning, and Respiratory Symptoms, were significantly lower in participants with elevated ADHD screens (unadjusted p<0.05). This difference remained statistically significant for the Role Functioning and Respiratory Symptoms scales following correction for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS The highly specific screening tool ASRS-v1.1 can ascertain previously undetected ADHD symptoms in adults with CF. ADHD was substantially more prevalent than expected in this population. Elevated ASRS-v1.1 screens correlated with poorer Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in some domains, but not with BMI, FEV1%pred, or self-reported CF treatment adherence. Additional research will elucidate the impact of ADHD and its treatment on HRQoL, CF self-care and health outcomes.

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